7 Types of Phonological Rules

Here is an interesting discussion I had in my class recently. Phonological rules can be classified by the kind of process they involve. Here are the seven major types of phonological rules/processes with examples.

1. Assimilation – phonological process in which a sound changes to resemble a nearby sound and can occur both forward and backward.

Ex. The prefix in- where sometimes it appears as in– and others as im-. In front of bilabial words, in– becomes im-. This also happens across word boundaries, like in between pronounced with an m.


2. Dissimilation – phonological process in which two close sounds changes to become less alike.

Ex. Manner dissimilation where a stop becomes a fricative when followed by another stop. The word sixth is pronounced sikst, /sθ/ becomes /st/.


3. Insertion – phonological process in which a sound is added to a word.

Ex. Voiceless stop insertion where between a nasal consonant and a voiceless fricative, a voiceless stop with the same place of articulation as the nasal consonant is inserted. In English, many say hampster instead of hamster, a /p/ is added.


4. Deletion – phonological process in which speech sounds disappear from words.

Ex. English is a fast/common speech language, so vowels can be deleted to make the word one syllable, and easier to pronounce in a fast manner. Police becomes plice, and friendship is said as frienship.


5. Metathesis – phonological process in which sounds switch places in the phonemic structure of a word.

Ex. To make words easier to pronounce and understand, letters are switched. Two historical examples include Old English (brid and aks) becoming Modern English (bird and ask).


6. Strengthening (fortition) – phonological process in which a sound is made stronger.

Ex. Aspiration is where voiceless stops become aspirated when they occur at the beginning of a stressed syllable. Top is said with as h.


7. Weakening (lenition) – phonological process in which a sound becomes weaker.

Ex. The definition of flapping is before a stressed vowel and before and unstressed vowel where the sound is pronounced with articulation resembling a flap. The word kitty is an example where the alveolar stop is realized as /r/.


I think deletion is more important and more pertinent in my own life. To pronounce every consonant and vowel, in every single word, would be tiring and time consuming. As an English speaker, time is money. Being able to delete certain letters to make words easier to pronounce as one-syllable structures is useful. When I write fast, my handwriting becomes sloppy in my attempt to get down all of the information in my head. I believe the same rule applies to speech.

Source: How English Works by Anne Curzan and Michael Adams, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Inc.

Reorganized and Cataloged Bookshelf

Bookshelf

Had to reorganize my bookshelf because it was overflowing…and I was procrastinating. Here is a list of all of the series that I have in physical copies. (I have another list of digital books series.)

P.S. Sorry for the long post.

 

– Own
! To Read
* Read
: Virtual
Artemis Fowl Series by Eoin Colfer
–   * Artemis Fowl
–   * The Arctic Incident
–   * The Eternity Code
–   * The Opal Deception
–   * The Lost Colony
–   * The Time Paradox
–   * The Atlantis Complex
–   * The Last Guardian
Something Strange and Deadly Series by Susan Dennard
–   ! Something Strange and Deadly
–   ! A Darkness Strange and Lovely
–   ! Strange and Ever After
Kanin Chronicles by Amanda Hocking
–   * Frostfire
–   ! Ice Kissed
–   ! Crystal Kingdom
Septimus Heap Series by Angie Sage
–   * Magyk
–   * Flyte
–   * Physik
–   * Queste
–   * Syren
–   * Darke
–   ! Fyre
Delirium Series by Lauren Oliver
–   * Delirium
–   ! Pandemonium
–   ! Requiem
Hunger Games Trilogy by Suzanne Collins
–   * The Hunger Games
–   * Catching Fire
–   * Mockingjay
Witch & Wizard Series by James Patterson
–   * Witch & Wizard
–   * The Gift
–   ! The Fire
     ! The Kiss
     ! The Lost
Twilight Series by Stephenie Meyer
–   * Twilight
–   * New Moon
–   * Eclipse
–   * Breaking Dawn
–   ! Life and Death
Red Queen Series by Victoria Aveyard
–   * Red Queen
–   ! Glass Sword
Eve Series by Anna Carey
–   ! Eve
–   ! Once
–   ! Rise
Need Series by Carrie Jones
–   * Need
–   * Captive
–   * Entice
–   * Endure
Sweet Series by Wendy Higgins
–   * Sweet Evil
–   * Sweet Peril
–   * Sweet Reckoning
–   ! Sweet Temptation
Infernal Devices Trilogy by Cassandra Clare
–   * Clockwork Angel
–   * Clockwork Prince
–   * Clockwork Princess
Dark Artifices Trilogy by Cassandra Clare
–   ! Lady Midnight
     ! Lord of Shadows
     ! The Queen of Air and Darkness
Teardrop Series by Lauren Kate
–   ! Teardrop
     ! Waterfall
Black City Series by Elizabeth Richards
–   * Black City
–   ! Phoenix
–   ! Wings
Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel Series by Michael Scott
–   * The Alchemyst
–   * The Magician
–   * The Sorceress
–   * The Necromancer
–   ! The Warlock
–   ! The Enchantress
House of Night Series by P.C. Cast and Kristin Cast
–   * Marked
–   * Betrayed
–   * Chosen
–   * Untamed
–   * Hunted
–   * Tempted
–   * Burned
–   * Awakened
–   * Destined
–   ! Hidden
–   ! Revealed
–   ! Redeemed
Tiger Saga by Colleen Houck
–   * Tiger’s Curse
–   * Tiger’s Quest
–   * Tiger’s Voyage
–   * Tiger’s Destiny
Penryn & the End of Days Trilogy by Susan Ee
–   * Angelfall
–   ! World After
     ! End of Days
Divergent Series by Veronica Roth
–   * Divergent
–   * Insurgent
–   * Allegiant
Magonia Series by Maria Headley
–   ! Magonia
     ! Aerie (10/4/16)
Watersong Quartet Series by Amanda Hocking
–   ! Wake
–   ! Lullaby
     ! Tidal
     ! Elegy
Maximum Ride Series by James Patterson
–   * The Angel Experiment
–   * School’s Out-Forever
–   * Saving the World and Other Extreme Sports
–   * The Final Warning
–   * Max
–   * Fang
–   ! Angel
–   ! Nevermore
     ! Maximum Ride Forever
Sweep Series by Cate Tiernan
–   * Book of Shadows
–   * The Coven
–   * Blood Witch
–   * Dark Magick
–   * Awakening
–   * Spellbound
–   * The Calling
–   * Changeling
–   * Strife
–   * Seeker
–   * Origins
–   * Eclipse
–   * Reckoning
–   * Full Circle
–   * Night’s Child
Wolves of Mercy Falls Trilogy by Maggie Stiefvater
–   * Shiver
–   * Linger
–   * Forever
Chemical Garden Trilogy by Lauren DeStefano
–   * Wither
–   * Fever
–   ! Sever
Mortal Instruments Series by Cassandra Clare
–   * City of Bones
–   * City of Ashes
–   * City of Glass
–   * City of Fallen Angels
–   * City of Lost Souls
–   * City of Heavenly Fire
Throne of Glass Series by Sarah J. Maas
–   * Throne of Glass
–   * Crown of Midnight
–   * Heir of Fire
–   * Queen of Shadows
     ! Empire of Storms (9/6/16)
–   ! The Assassin’s Blade

 

–   ! Dangerous Lies by Becca Fitzpatrick
–   ! Black Ice by Becca Fitzpatrick
–   ! Winterspell by Claire Legrand
Halo Series by Alexandra Adornetto
–   ! Halo
     ! Hades
     ! Heaven
Heir Chronicles by Cinda Williams Chima
–   * The Warrior Heir
–   * The Wizard Heir
–   * The Dragon Heir
–   ! The Enchanter Heir
     ! The Sorcerer Heir
Matched Trilogy by Ally Condie
–   * Matched
–   ! Crossed
–   ! Reached
Newsoul Series by Jodi Meadows
–   ! Incarnate
     ! Asunder
     ! Infinite
Twixt Series by Dawn Metcalf
–   ! Indelible
     ! Invisible
     ! Insidious
     ! Invincible (7/26/16)
W.A.R.P. Series by Eoin Colfer
–   ! The Reluctant Assassin
     ! The Hangman’s Revolution
     ! The Forever Man
Seven Realms Series by Cinda Williams Chima
–   * The Demon King
–   * The Exiled Queen
–   * The Gray Wolf Throne
–   * The Crimson Crown
5th Wave Series by Rick Yancey
–   ! The Fifth Wave
     ! The Infinite Sea
     ! The Last Star
Allies & Assassins Series by Justin Somper
–   ! Allies & Assassins
     ! A Conspiracy of Princes
Snow Like Ashes Series by Sara Raasch
–   ! Snow Like Ashes
     ! Ice Like Fire
     ! Frost Like Night
Perfect Chemistry Series by Simone Elkeles
–   * Perfect Chemistry
–   * Rules of Attraction
–   * Chain Reaction
Incarceron Series by Catherine Fisher
–   * Incarceron
–   ! Sapphique
Wings Series by Aprilynne Pike
–   * Wings
– : * Spells
– : * Illusions
– : * Destined
Modern Faerie Tales Trilogy by Holly Black
–   * Tithe
–   * Valiant
–   * Ironside
Pendragon Series by D. J. MacHale
–   * The Merchant of Death
–   * The Lost City of Faar
–   * The Never War
–   * The Reality Bug
–   * Black Water
–   * The Rivers of Zadaa
–   * The Quillan Games
–   * The Pilgrims of Rayne
–   * Raven Rise
–   * The Soldiers of Halla
Kane Chronicles Series by Rick Riordan
–   ! The Red Pyramid
–   ! The Throne of Fire
–   ! The Serpent’s Shadow
Gone Series by Michael Grant
–   * Gone
–   * Hunger
–   * Lies
–   ! Plague
–   ! Fear
–   ! Light
Inheritance Cycle Series by Christopher Paolini
–   * Eragon
–   * Eldest
–   * Brisingr
–   * Inheritance
Uglies Series by Scott Westerfeld
–   * Uglies
–   * Pretties
–   * Specials
–   * Extras
Falling Kingdoms Series by Morgan Rhodes
–   * Falling Kingdoms
– : * Rebel Spring
– : * Gathering Darkness
– : ! Frozen Tides
      ! Crystal Storm (12/13/16)
Spirits and Thieves Series by Morgan Rhodes
–   ! A Book of Spirits and Thieves
     ! The Darkest Magic (6/28/16)
Talon Series by Julie Kagawa
–   ! Talon
     ! Rogue
     ! Soldier
     ! Legion (2017)
Selection Series by Kiera Cass
– : * The Selection
– : * The Elite
–   * The One
– : * The Heir
–   ! The Crown
Trylle Trilogy by Amanda Hocking
–   * Switched
– : * Torn
– : * Ascend
Under the Never Sky Series by Veronica Rossi
–   * Under the Never Sky
– : * Through the Ever Night
– : * Into the Still Blue
Reawakened Series by Colleen Houck
–   ! Reawakened
     ! Recreated (5/2/16)
Defiance Series by C.J. Redwine
–   ! Defiance
     ! Deception
     ! Deliverance
Project Paper Doll Series by Stacey Kade
–   ! The Rules
     ! The Hunt
     ! The Trials
Conquered Earth Series by J. Barton Mitchell
–   ! Midnight City
     ! Severed Tower
     ! Valley of Fires
Witchlands Series by Susan Dennard
–   ! Truthwitch
     ! Windwitch
Legend Series by Marie Lu
–   * Legend
– : * Prodigy
– : ! Champion
Graceling Series by Kristin Cashore
– : * Graceling
–   * Fire
– : * Bitterblue
Young Elites Series by Marie Lu
–   ! The Young Elites
      ! The Rose Society
      ! The Midnight Star (10/11/16)
Fire and Thorns Series by Rae Carson
–   * The Girl of Fire and Thorns
– : * The Crown of Embers
– : ! The Bitter Kingdom
Violet Eden Series by Jessica Shirvington
–   * Embrace
– : * Enticed
– : * Emblaze
– : * Endless
– : ! Empower
Fallen Series by Lauren Kate
–   * Fallen
– : ! Torment
– : ! Passion
     ! Rapture
     ! Unforgiven
Mara Dyer Trilogy by Michelle Hodkin
–   * The Unbecoming of Mara Dyer
     ! The Evolution of Mara Dyer
     ! The Retribution of Mara Dyer
Crewel World Series by Gennifer Albin
–   ! Crewel
     ! Altered
     ! Unraveled
Darkest Minds Series by Alexandra Bracken
–   ! The Darkest Minds
     ! Never Fade
     ! In the Afterlight
Iron Fey Series by Julie Kagawa
–   * The Iron King
– : * The Iron Daughter
– : * The Iron Queen
– : * The Iron Knight
Inkworld Trilogy by Cornelia Funke
–   ! Inkheart
     ! Inkspell
     ! Inkdeath
Virals Series by Kathy Reichs
–   ! Virals
     ! Seizure
     ! Code
     ! Exposure
      ! Terminal
Maze Runner Series by James Dashner
–   ! The Maze Runner
     ! The Scorch Trials
     ! The Death Cure
Immortal Beloved Series by Cate Tierman
–   * Immortal Beloved
      ! Darkness Fall
      ! Eternally Yours
Unwind Dystology Series by Neal Shusterman
–   ! Unwind
     ! Unwholly
     ! Unsouled
     ! Undivided
Corpus Series by Jessica Khoury
–   ! Origin
     ! Vitro
     ! Kalahari
Engelsfors Series by Sara B. Elfgren and Mats Strandberg
–   ! The Circle
     ! The Fire
     ! The Key
The Glittering Court Series by Richelle Mead
–   ! The Glittering Court
Endgame Series by James Frey
–   ! The Calling
     ! Sky Key
An Ember in the Ashes Series by Sabaa Tahir
–   ! An Ember in the Ashes
     ! A Torch Against the Night (8/30/16)
Ruined Series by Amy Tintera
–   ! Ruined
Reign of Shadows Series by Sophie Jordan
–   ! Reign of Shadows
     ! Rise of Fire
Six of Crows Series by Leigh Bardugo
–   ! Six of Crows
     ! Crooked Kingdom (9/27/16)
Jayded Series by Brandt Trebor
–   * The Road to Grandeur
Bloodlines Series by Richelle Mead
–   ! Bloodlines
     ! The Golden Lily
     ! The Indigo Spell
     ! The Fiery Heart
     ! Silver Shadows
     ! The Ruby Circle
Vampire’s Promise Series by Caroline B. Cooney
–   ! Deadly Offer
–   ! Evil Returns
–   ! Fatal Bargain
Other Series by Karen Kincy
–   ! Other
     ! Bloodborn
     ! Foxfire
Lord of the Rings Series by J.R.R. Tolkien
–   ! The Fellowship of the Ring
–   ! The Two Towers
–   ! The Return of the King
Immortals Series by Alyson Noel
–   ! Evermore
     ! Blue Moon
     ! Shadowland
     ! Dark Flame
     ! Night Star
     ! Everlasting
Partholon Series by P.C. Cast
      ! Divine By Mistake
     ! Divine By Choice
     ! Divine By Blood
     ! Elphame’s Choice
–   ! Brighid’s Quest
Percy Jackson and the Olympians Series by Rick Riordan
–   ! The Lightning Thief
     ! The Sea of Monsters
     ! The Titan’s Curse
     ! The Battle of the Labyrinth
     ! The Last Olympian
Things Series by Andrew Clements
–   ! Things Not Seen
     ! Things Hoped For
     ! Things That Are

 

–   ! Before I Fall by Lauren Oliver
–   ! Atlantia by Ally Condie
–   ! The Darkworld by Cara Lynn Shultz
–   ! The Treachery of Beautiful Things by Ruth Frances Long
–   * Room by Emma Donoghue
–   * The Fault in Our Stars by John Green
–   ! Looking for Alaska by John Green
–   ! The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini
–   ! El León, La Bruja y El Ropero by C. S. Lewis
–   ! Nobody by Jennifer Lynn Barnes
–   * The Geeks Shall Inherit the Earth by Alexandra Robbins
–   * A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled Hosseini
–   * The Poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver
–   * A Separate Peace by John Knowles
–   * Brave New World by Aldous Huxley

Frontness or Backness

Frontness/backness is one of the three distinctive features of vowels. This blog post will explain the positions of the tongue, used in English, and list the English vowels at each degree. Screen Shot 2016-05-24 at 12.53.31 PM.png

The frontness or backness of a vowel is the location of the tongue in the mouth from back to front.

Front = front vowels are produced when the tip of the tongue is near the front of the mouth. Ex. cit(y), b(i)d, p(e)t, p(a)t, ch(a)otic

  • /i/
  • /I/
  • /ε/
  • /æ/
  • /e/

 

Central = central vowels are produced when the tongue is in a neutral position. Ex. b(u)d, (a)bove

  • /∧/
  • /ə/

 

Back = back vowels are produced when the back of the tongue is in the back of the mouth. Ex. h(oo)t, p(u)t, l(aw), f(a)ther, pill(ow)

  • /u/
  • /υ/
  • /ɔ/
  • /a/
  • /o/

Tenseness or Laxness

Tenseness/laxness is one of the three distinctive features of vowels. This blog post will explain the two contractions, used in English, and list the English vowels that happen with each.

The tenseness or laxness of a vowel is the distinction of whether the tongue is tense (periphery) or lax (centralized).

Tense = tense vowels occur when there is a larger degree of tension in the mouth, these vowels are usually longer. Ex. fr(ee), sh(oe), g(o), d(a)y,

  • /i/
  • /u/
  • /o/
  • /e/

 

Lax = lax vowels occur when there is a small degree of tension for the tongue. Ex. p(i)t, f(oo)t, p(e)t, (a)bove, n(u)t, p(aw), b(a)d, b(a)lm

  • /I/
  • /υ/
  • /ε/
  • /ə/
  • /∧/
  • /ɔ/
  • /æ/
  • /a/

Height

Height is one of the three distinctive features of vowels. This blog post will explain the different levels, used in English, and list the English vowels that occur at each elevation.

Screen Shot 2016-05-24 at 11.47.36 AM.png

The height of a vowel is the degree to which the tongue is raised or lowered when articulating a sound.

High = high vowels are said when there is little space between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. Ex. b(ee)t, b(00)t, b(i)t, b(oo)k

  • /i/
  • /u/
  • /I/
  • /υ/

 

Mid = mid vowels are said when there is medium space between the tongue and the top of the mouth, in between closer to its resting position. Ex. b(e)t, (a)ppeal, (u)p, (awe), pill(ow), ch(a)otic

  • /ε/
  • /ə/
  • /∧/
  • /ɔ/
  • /o/
  • /e/

 

Low = low vowels are said when there is large space allowed in the mouth. Ex. b(a)t, h(o)t

  • /æ/
  • /a/

Voicing

Voicing is one of the three distinctive features of consonants. This blog post will explain the difference types, used in English, and list the English consonants that occur in both sections.

Voicing (phonation) of a consonant is the indication of whether the vocal cords vibrate or not when a sound is produced.

Voiced = voiced consonants happen when the vocal cords vibrate.

  • /b/
  • /m/
  • /w/
  • /v/
  • /ð/
  • /d/
  • /z/
  • /n/
  • /l/
  • /g/
  • /j/
  • /η/
  • /ɹ/
  • /ʒ/
  • /dʒ/

 

Voiceless = voiceless consonants happen when the vocal cords do not vibrate.

  • /p/
  • /ʍ/
  • /f/
  • /θ/
  • /t/
  • /s/
  • /∫/
  • /k/
  • /h/
  • /t∫/
  • /ʔ/

Manner of Articulation

Manner of articulation is one of the three distinctive features of consonants. This blog post will explain the path of airflow, used in English, and list the English consonants that occur during these distinguishing processes.

The manner of articulation of a consonant is the configuration and interaction of articulators and how the speech sound affects the airflow.

Nasal = nasal consonants occur when you block the airflow in the mouth and let the air pass through the nose. Ex. ha(m), (n)ap, fi(ng)er

  • /m/
  • /n/
  • /η/

 

Stop = stop consonants occur when you completely block airflow from the lungs through the mouth followed by a release of the air. Ex. (p)ain, (b)uild, (t)ap, (d)ig, (k)ill, be(g)

  • /p/
  • /b/
  • /t/
  • /d/
  • /k/
  • /g/

 

Fricative = fricative consonants occur when you force the airflow through a narrow channel, passive and active articulators come close and cause friction. Ex. (f)ree, (v)oice, (th)ing, fa(th)er, (s)ee, ro(s)e, (sh)ame, sei(zu)re, (h)elp

  • /f/
  • /v/
  • /θ/
  • /ð/
  • /s/
  • /z/
  • /∫/
  • /ʒ/
  • /h/

 

Affricate = affricate consonants occur when you completely block airflow and then release the air through a narrow channel, a combination of a stop and a fricative. Ex. (ch)air, (j)oy

  • /t∫/
  • /dʒ/

 

Approximant = approximant consonants occur when articulators are close but not close enough to stop airflow entirely, they sound somewhat like vowels. Ex. (l)eft, (r)eal, (w)e, (y)es

  • /l/
  • /r/
  • /w/
  • /j/

 

Liquids = liquid consonants occur when you partially block airflow and the air is altered in different directions. Ex. (l)ife, ve(r)y

  • /l/
  • /r/

 

Glides = glide consonants occur when you partially block airflow and direct the air is a smooth direction over the tongue. Ex. (w)et, (y)ou

  • /w/
  • /j/

Place of Articulation

Place of articulation is one of the three distinctive features of consonants. This blog post will explain the locations, used in English, and list the English consonants that occur at these points.

Screen Shot 2016-05-23 at 7.06.08 PM.png

The place (point) of articulation of a consonant is the location of the passive and active articulators or where a sound is produced due to obstruction of the airstream.

Bilabial = bilabial consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by bringing your lips together. Ex. (p)eople, (b)ill, (m)an, (w)eekend

  • /p/
  • /b/
  • /m/
  • /w/
  • /ʍ/

 

Labio-Dental = labio-dental consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by curling your lower lip to your upper teeth. Ex. (f)avor, (v)ote

  • /f/
  • /v/

 

Inter-Dental = inter-dental consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by raising your tongue to your upper teeth. Ex. tee(th), (th)is

  • /θ/
  • /ð/

 

Alveolar = alveolar consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by placing your tongue to your alveolar ridge (the spot behind your teeth where they meet your gums). Ex. (n)o, (t)ip, (d)are, (s)ave, (z)oo, be(ll), (r)eal

  • /n/
  • /t/
  • /d/
  • /s/
  • /z/
  • /l/
  • /ɹ/

 

Post-Alveolar = post-alveolar consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by raising your tongue just beyond the alveolar ridge. Ex. (sh)oot, plea(su)re, tea(ch), e(dge)

  • /∫/
  • /ʒ/
  • /t∫/
  • /dʒ/

 

Palatal = palatal consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by raising your tongue to the roof of your mouth/hard palate. Ex. (y)es

  • /j/

 

Velar = velar consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by placing the back of your tongue near the velum/soft palate (behind the roof of your mouth). Ex. s(k)ip, (g)et, ri(ng)

  • /k/
  • /g/
  • /η/

 

Glottal = glottal consonants are produced when you obstruct airflow by closing the vocal folds/cords and then releasing the air. Ex. (h)at, u(h)-oh, Wha(t) time is it?

  • /h/
  • /ʔ/